A Catholic Blog for Lovers
Saturday, May 01, 2004
Muslims seek to worship in ancient mosque
The BBC runs a story that made the rounds a while ago. Still of interest, however.
Bishop says he won't serve Communion to N.J. governor
BLACKWOOD, N.J. - The incoming leader of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Camden said that he would not serve Holy Communion to Governor James E. McGreevey, a divorced Catholic who supports abortion rights.
The Most Rev. Joseph Galante said Thursday that he was taking the stance primarily because the Democratic governor remarried without receiving a church annulment.
Galante also cited McGreevey's support of abortion rights, stem cell research, and other positions that contradict church views.
Galante, who was installed yesterday during a Mass at St. Agnes Church in Blackwood, said he felt duty-bound to take a hard-line stance on the issue. He said the public becomes confused about church teachings when bishops fail to challenge Catholic politicians on their voting records...."
The May Magnificat
MAY is Mary’s month, and I
Muse at that and wonder why:
Her feasts follow reason,
Dated due to season—
Candlemas, Lady Day;
But the Lady Month, May,
Why fasten that upon her,
With a feasting in her honour?
Is it only its being brighter
Than the most are must delight her?
Is it opportunest
And flowers finds soonest?
Ask of her, the mighty mother:
Her reply puts this other
Question: What is Spring?—
Growth in every thing—
Flesh and fleece, fur and feather,
Grass and greenworld all together;
Throstle above her nested
Cluster of bugle blue eggs thin
Forms and warms the life within;
And bird and blossom swell
In sod or sheath or shell.
All things rising, all things sizing
Mary sees, sympathising
With that world of good,
Their magnifying of each its kind
With delight calls to mind
How she did in her stored
Magnify the Lord.
Well but there was more than this:
Spring’s universal bliss
Much, had much to say
To offering Mary May.
Bloom lights the orchard-apple
And thicket and thorp are merry
With silver-surfèd cherry
And azuring-over greybell makes
Wood banks and brakes wash wet like lakes
And magic cuckoocall
Caps, clears, and clinches all—
This ecstasy all through mothering earth
Tells Mary her mirth till Christ’s birth
To remember and exultation
In God who was her salvation.
- Gerard Manley Hopkins
On May 1, 1951 Takashi Nagai, Catholic convert, medical doctor, and worker for peace, died in Nagasaki, Japan.
On November 23, 1945, Takashi was invited to speak during a Requiem Mass celebrated beside the ruins of the Cathedral of Urakami. The holocaust of Christ on Calvary sheds light upon and gives meaning to "the holocaust" of Nagasaki:
"On the morning of August 9," he said, "an atomic bomb exploded over our part of town. In one instant 8,000 Christians were called to God. At midnight our cathedral suddenly caught fire and was burned down. At the same moment, at the Imperial Palace, His Majesty the Emperor made his decision public...On August 15, the imperial edict that put an end to the hostilities was officially transmitted and the entire world glimpsed the light of peace.
August 15 is also the great feast of the Assumption of Mary. It was not a coincidence that the Cathedral of Urakami was consecrated to her... Isn't there a profound relationship between the destruction of this Christian city and the end of the war? Wasn't Nagasaki the chosen victim, the spotless lamb, the holocaust offered upon the altar of sacrifice, killed for the sins of all the nations during the Second World War?... Let us be thankful that Nagasaki had been chosen for this holocaust. Let us be thankful, for through this sacrifice, peace has been given to the world as well as religious freedom to Japan."
Tashaki Nagai had contact with Father Maximillian Kolbe, who worked in Japan for years. His wife, Midori, was a devout Catholic as well.
Takashi Nagai was buried at Midori's side. For her tomb he had chosen the following epitaph: Behold the handmaid of the Lord. Be it done to me according to thy word (Lk 1:38); for his: We are unprofitable servants. We have done what it was our duty to do (Lk 17:10).
Friday, April 30, 2004
Going to Paris!
God willing, I am going with Father Michael to Paris September 1-8th. Got a deal we couldn't resist. Another dream may come true! I am hoping to visit Chartres, and the monastery of Solesmes, and Taize. I am excited. I can hardly believe I bit off this much (but glad I chose Paris over Istanbul).
(The deal: airfare on AA from Baltimore, 6 night stay in hotel, $700 per person; rental car with automatic for the week, $400 total. That seems very good to me - especially at such a great time of year).
I also cancelled the 10 night Canada cruise in September - it would just be too much. But I did book a shorter, 5 day cruise to Canada, July 11-16. A sort of happy compromise! Better for me too.
Wow! I have a lot of wonderful trips to look forward to. I saw my doctor yesterday and he thinks I am doing well and "doing it right!" He said "I live vacariosuly through you!" (He takes wonderful vacations in which he pursues his passion for fishing). He loves tales of the trips I take and book. Loves to hear of the "bargains" I've been fortunate to track down.
At any rate, I am so happy now thinking to the travel plans made. Part of the joy of trips is the anticipation and the preparation. But until I am "on the road" it is good to be home - good to be with my ONION as he ages so far so gracefully and peacefully - and good to be so blessed. My doctor loved my comment that "by becoming 'disabled' I have become 'enabled'" - and while, for example, in Paris I would love to be able to walk all around, hop on the busses and ride the metro, and I can't do that - yet without the limitation, I wouldn't even be there!!! I would NEVER have suspected that I'd be able to travel as much as I have been able so far - and as both "disabled" and "poor."
Good News about the Pope
"John Paul II seems as indomitable as ever. This Sunday, he will ordain 26 priests in St. Peter?s Basilica. On May 16, he will preside at the canonization of six saints. June 5-6 he will be in Bern, Switzerland, for a national Catholic youth gathering. On June 10 he will lead the observance of Corpus Christi, with the traditional Eucharistic procession from the basilica of St. John Lateran to that of St. Mary Major. On June 29, he will celebrate the feast of Sts. Peter and Paul, together with the Orthodox Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople."
- From John Allen's latest "The Word from Rome" column
Ad multos annos! JP 2, we love you!
Radicals ‘have distorted Vatican II’
From the London Tablet online:
Radicals on both the traditionalist and the progressive wings of the Church have over the years distorted the objectives of the Second Vatican Council, according to the president of the German bishops’ conference, Cardinal Karl Lehmann.
The “unfruitful trench warfare between the extreme progressives on the one side, whose arguments have become thinner and thinner, and the extreme traditionalists on the other, who have become increasingly arrogant and overbearing” had both over the years been equally damaging to the Council’s mission, the Archbishop of Mainz said at a Vatican II commemoration at Salzburg University on 20 April.
There were several other reasons why the spirit of hope that the Council had generated had begun to dwindle with the course of time and why some people today even thought it had “petered out altogether,” Cardinal Lehmann said. One was that shortly after the Council, the world had changed radically.
The student uprisings of 1968, the Vietnam War, the conflict in Biafra and the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia had all played their part. Preconciliar discipline had soon been lost, a sign that it was “obviously already no longer resilient in a crisis,” he said. The practice of confession would not have dwindled so quickly if it had not already been crumbling. “Was it not possible that the doors were opened too late, despite all the Council’s efforts?” he asked.
The cardinal called for renewed study of the Council documents, which he said were very complex and did not always present “the easy solutions we would like to read into them”.
He added that it was crucial to practise the “discernment of spirits”, and naïve to think that the aggiornamento – “updating” – of the Church had merely meant adjusting to the world. The Council had wanted to open the Church to dialogue and to end the Church’s opposition to modernity. But dialogue meant getting together to find and recognise the truth and was not just a “harmless avowal of friendship and naively adapting to the world”.
The Council had not, moreover, just been intended as one single reform act on the part of the Church, but had wanted to signal a fundamental, underlying willingness for reform, Cardinal Lehmann concluded.
Today in Chriistian history
April 30, 304: The last and most punishing anti-Christian edict during the reign of Roman Emperor Diocletian is published. The man behind the edict, Augustus Galerius, finally issued an edict of toleration on April 30, 311—just days before dying of a disease known as "being eaten with worms".
April 30, 418: (395-423) issues a decree against Pelagianism, a heresy teaching that man can take the initial and fundamental steps towards salvation by his own efforts, apart from divine grace.
April 30, 1562: Two ships carrying 150 Huguenot (French Protestant) immigrants arrive off the coast of northeast Florida. The settlers established a colony at Parris Island, South Carolina, but abandoned it two years later due to a lack of supplies.
April 30, 1642: Richard Lovelace, a clergyman of the Church of England, presented to Parliament a petition in favor of bishops and common prayer. The Puritan-dominated Parliament had him imprisoned. There he wrote his most famous poem, "To Althea from Prison," which contains the lines "Stone walls do not a prison make,/ Nor iron bars a cage."
April 30, 1981: Bishop James E. Walsh, who was imprisioned in China for 12 years, died at the age of 90. Walsh had helped found the missionary order known as Maryknoll. He survived, he said, because of prayer and just did what every priest is called to do: "be faithful and when his people are in trouble, to stay with them."
Thursday, April 29, 2004
Proposed new translation of the Mass online (in jpeg. form)
At last a look!
Catholic Priest Who Aids Church Sexual Abuse Victims Loses Job
Twenty years ago, the Rev. Thomas Doyle warned the nation's Roman Catholic bishops about the church's looming sexual abuse nightmare. Since then, he has become a hero to the victims, speaking out on their behalf and helping them in legal cases in recent years.
In doing so, Father Doyle also became a thorn in the side of the church hierarchy.
In the latest chapter of his turbulent career, Father Doyle was quietly removed from his job as an Air Force chaplain in a clash with his archbishop over pastoral issues.
He lost his endorsement as a chaplain from the Archdiocese of Military Services in September, a decision that until now had not become public. The leader of the Archdiocese of Military Services, Archbishop Edwin F. O'Brien, said Father Doyle had flouted his guidelines about requiring daily Mass for Catholics on military bases and other pastoral issues...
..Father Doyle complicated his position after losing his endorsement by seeking to replace it with one from the Holy Orthodox Catholic Church, a small body unrelated to the Roman Catholic Church. The priest called that endorsement a bureaucratic fig leaf to keep chaplain status so that he could stay on past his required retirement in August, when he turns 60, and receive a better retirement package. He now calls that decision a mistake and has renounced it.
But the damage was done. A group of priests on Long Island who had invited Father Doyle to speak earlier in April withdrew the request because of rumors he was an apostate."
Today in Christian history
April 29, 1380: Italian mystic Catherine of Siena dies from exhaustion brought on by her efforts to bring unity to the Church. Her visions, experienced since childhood, and her persistent pleading led Pope Gregory XI to return the papal seat to Rome from Avignon, France. Catherine was canonized and later declared a Doctor of the Universal Church.
April 29, 1429: Joan of Arc, who had experienced mystical visions and voices since childhood, enters the besieged French city of Orleans to lead a victory over the English. The next day, the English retreated, but, because it was a Sunday, Joan refused to allow any pursuit. On a sortie the next year, The English captured Joan and put her on trial for heresy.
April 29, 1607: English settlers establish the first Anglican church in the American colonies at Cape Henry, Virginia.
Wednesday, April 28, 2004
I discovered this blog about 2 weeks ago and it is one of my favorites. I love the humor of the guy! Be sure to read the archives too. I visit Alhamedi daily. I hope he can continue for a long time.
Cardinal seeks study of major issues, not telling people how to vote
Reading this report brings to mind the words of Saint Paul: "If the trumphet gives an uncertain sound, who will get ready for the battle?" (1 Cor 14:8).
The Cardinal just sounds overly nuanced and too "nice" to my ears anyway. I prefer Our Lord's "let your yes be yes; your no be no!" (Mt 5:37).
Act of Consecration of St Louis de Montfort
An Act composed by today's saint which numerous Catholics have taken after a sustained preparation; a most serious commitment: totus tuus!
O Eternal and Incarnate Wisdom! O sweetest and most adorable Jesus! True God and true man, only Son of the Eternal Father, and of Mary, always virgin! I adore thee profoundly in the bosom and splendors of Thy Father during eternity; and I adore Thee also in the virginal bosom of Mary, Thy most worthy Mother, in the time of Thine Incarnation.
I give Thee thanks for that Thou hast annihilated Thyself, taking the form of a slave in order to rescue me from the cruel slavery of the devil. I praise and glorify Thee for that Thou hast been pleased to subject Thyself to Mary, Thy holy Mother, in all things, in order to make me Thy faithful slave through her.
But, alas! Ungrateful and faithless as I have been, I have not kept the promises which I made so solemnly to Thee in my Baptism; I have not fulfilled my obligation; I do not deserve to be called Thy child, nor yet Thy slave; and as there is nothing in me which does not merit Thine anger and Thy repulse, I dare not come by myself before Thy most holy and august Majesty. It is on this account that I have recourse to the intercession of Thy most holy Mother, whom Thou hast given me for a mediatrix with Thee. It is through her that I hope to obtain of Thee contrition, the pardon of my sins, and the acquisition and preservation of wisdom.
Hail, then, O Immaculate Mary, living tabernacle of the Divinity, where the Eternal Wisdom willed to be hidden and to be adored by angels and by men! Hail, O Queen of Heaven and earth, to whose empire everything is subject which is under God. Hail, O sure refuge of sinners, whose mercy fails no one. Hear the desires which I have of the Divine Wisdom; and for that end receive the vows and offerings which in my lowliness I present to thee.
I, ____________, a faithless sinner, renew and ratify today in thy hands the vows of my Baptism; I renounce forever Satan, his pomps and works; and I give myself entirely to Jesus Christ, the Incarnate Wisdom, to carry my cross after Him all the days of my life, and to be more faithful to Him than I have ever been before. In the presence of all the heavenly court I choose thee this day for my Mother and Mistress. I deliver and consecrate to thee, as thy slave, my body and soul, my goods, both interior and exterior, and even the value of all my good action, past, present and future; leaving to thee the entire and full right of disposing ofme, and of all that belongs to me, without exception, according to thy good pleasure, for the greater glory of God, in time and ineternity.
Receive, O benign Virgin, this little offering of my slavery, in honor of, and in union with, that subjection which the Eternal Wisdom deigned to have to thy maternity, in homage to the power which both of you have over this poor sinner, and in thanksgiving for the privileges with which the Holy Trinity has favored thee. I declare that I wish henceforth, as thy true slave, to seek thy honor and to obey thee in all things.
O admirable Mother, present me to thy dear Son as His eternal slave, so that as He has redeemed me by thee, by thee He may receive me! O Mother of mercy, grant me the grace to obtain the true Wisdom of God; and for that end receive me among those whom thou lovest and teachest, whom thou leadest, nourishest and protectest as thy children and thy slaves.
O faithful Virgin, make me in all things so perfect a disciple, imitator and slave of the Incarnate Wisdom, Jesus Christ thy Son, that I may attain, by thine intercession and by thine example, to the fullness of His age on earth and of His glory in Heaven. Amen
Today in Christian history
April 28, 1719: Louis Grignon de Montfort, Catholic priest, missionary, founder, died. One of his great contributions to the life of the Church is the Total Consecration to the Blessed Virgin Mary. He was canonized in 1947 and there some movement to have him declared a Doctor of the Church.
April 28, 1789: In the South Pacific, a band of hedonistic sailors stages the famous mutiny on the Bounty. The mutineers then sailed to uninhabited Pitcairn Island, where they soon fell into drinking and fighting. Only one man and several women (taken earlier as slaves) and children survived. The man, Alexander Smith, discovered the ship's neglected Bible, repented, and transformed the community. The Bible is still on display in a Pitcairn church.
April 28, 1973: The Catholic convert, philosopher-theologian, Jacques Maritain died. One of the leading voices in the Catholic revival in France, Maritain raised concerns about some of the trends after the Second Vatican Council (of which he was one of the "architects"). He died as a member of the Little Brothers of Jesus, inspired by the vision of Charles de Foucauld. There is some movement for his canonization, along with his wife convert, Raissa.
Tuesday, April 27, 2004
The Season of Joy
Christ is risen! It is lovely how Eastern Christians greet each other with these words, with the response: "Indeed He is risen!" during the 40 days of the Paschal Season before Ascension Thursday. For Roman Rite Catholics, our liturgy is marked with a stamp of joy during these 50 days before Pentecost. Alleluia is the theme song of this season. And so I wish you all abiding joy these days. Christ is risen and all will be well. ALLELUIA!
Closings spur church to warn on weddings
Hoping to avoid a nuptial nightmare, the Archdiocese of Boston is asking priests throughout the region to help brides and grooms whose weddings must be relocated because their churches of choice are closing.
The archdiocese has instructed every pastor and parish administrator in the region's 357 parishes to submit a schedule of upcoming weddings, as well as other important events, such as anniversary celebrations. And priests have been instructed to prepare to help displaced couples find churches where they might celebrate their big day..."
Defenders of Christianity Rebut 'The Da Vinci Code'
"..There is evidence that Mr. Brown's novel may be shaping the beliefs of a generation that is famously biblically illiterate. Michael S. Martin, a high school French teacher in Burlington, Vt., said he decided to read the novel when he noticed that his students were reading it in Harry Potter proportions.
"We like conspiracy theories, so whether it's J.F.K. or Jesus, people want to think there's something more than what they are telling us — the they in this case being the church," Mr. Martin said. "The church has a long and documented history of really trying to crush the whole feminine side, the pagan side. I think that's really hard to debate."
Today in Christian history
April 27, 1667: Blind, bitter, and poor, Puritan poet John Milton sells for ten pounds the copyright for "Paradise Lost"—a book that would influence English thought and language nearly as much as the King James Version and the plays of Shakespeare. The theme of the epic appears in its opening lines: "Of man's disobedience, and the fruit / Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste / Brought death into the world, and all our woe, / With loss of Eden."
April 27, 1775: Moravian minister and missionary Peter Boehler dies. He met John Wesley in 1737 while both were sailing to minister in America, and his assurance of faith and belief in joyous, instantaneous conversion left a permanent mark on Wesley.
Monday, April 26, 2004
New Orthodox Mission begins
My good friend and traveling buddy, Father Michael Roshak, is taking the first steps towards establishing a Mission for the OCA (Orthodox Church in America) in the Quantico-Stafford area of Virginia. This development is exciting and full of promise. Already a good number of persons have shown their interest and commitment and Father Michael knows some of these well. They are remarkable persons and this bodes well for a healthy and balanced community. Here are 2 pages of photos taken last evening at the Vespers and opening "business meeting" for this new mission. (Notice the weight loss of Father Michael - over 80 lbs since his surgery in February).
May the LORD bless the efforts of Father Michael and the people who have come together! (And Father Michael is a truly "Catholic-friendly" priest, as well as "Christian-friendly" priest, indeed he is a "people-friendly" priest - and a great traveling buddy!).
Where to go?
Looking into various vacation packages - trying to get to some places before I pass on from this (wonderful) world. Can't decide between Istanbul or Oslo (Oslo more expensive but my father was born in Norway and I have some relatives there, who I don't know, however). Istanbul is fascinating: with Hagia Sophia, and the rich history. And it is an Islamic city as well, which I've never experienced. The price tag for a November 6 day visit - airfare and lodging - is $925 per person. The Norway trip would be in August and much more expensive - about $1300 per person. But the weather would be much better in August then in November (when the price would drop to about $900 per person).
May 15-21 to Salt Lake City, Grand Teton, and Yellowstone (all new for me).
June 2-8: to Lake Tahoe, California, Yosemite, and Carmel and San Francisco (return visit).
Oct 11-15: 5 day trip to Boston area and New England at peak foliage time (I hope) with visit to Provincetown (repeat visit).
Then some cruises:
Sept 13-24: an 11 night cruise out of Baltimore to Maine, Maritimes, and Quebec (never been there!). My parish is getting together a group for this cruise (I booked it separately since I prefer a handicap accessible stateroom, which is in a good bit less expensive category);
Oct 21-Nov 2: a 2 night cruise to nowhere out of Baltimore.
The Istanbul trip would be Nov 11-16 which is right at the end of Ramadan and the beginning of the major Holidays.
That's it so far for 2004!!!! Grateful I have the time and the resources - to my astonishment! - and the ability to do some traveling, even if some of this may be pushing it a bit. Not sure if, for example, the trip to Istanbul with its long long flight would be biting off too much. Also in all of these trips I make it something of a pilgrimage as far as I am able. I try, too, to visit family and friends if possible - a real "perk" of these travels.
Where else should I go? Any leads and any "deals"?
Back in Argentina, Priest Faces 'Dirty War' Charges
I don't know enough of this story to comment; I pass it on for your information, reflection, and prayers.
Today in Christian history
April 26, 1564: William Shakespeare was baptized, but April 23 is accepted as his birthday.
April 26, 1877: Residents of Minnesota observe a state-wide day of prayer, asking deliverance from a plague of grasshoppers that had ruined thousands of acres of crops. The plague ended during that summer.
April 26, 1992: Worshipers celebrate the first publically observed Russian Orthodox Easter/Pascha in Moscow in 74 years.
Sunday, April 25, 2004
Militants in Europe Openly Support Bin Laden and the Rule of Islam
Very troubling report on Islamic radicals in Britain. I am amazed what they are getting away with.
Washington Mall Is Filled With Protesters From Across Nation
"...Addressing a pre-rally breakfast, Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton said: "We didn't have to march for 12 long years because we had a government that respected the rights of women. The only way we are going to avoid having to march again and again and again is to elect John Kerry president."
Ms. Clinton was one of several speakers who said that the march was just the beginning of a political mobilization that would stretch through the fall.
"Any woman who shows up to march today and doesn't register to vote is wasting her time and ours," she said.
The senator urged participants "not only to march on behalf of women's lives but to take that energy into the election in November."
The march began shortly after noon and followed a rally led by a variety of speakers including representatives from the League of Women Voters, Catholics for a Free Choice and Hadassah. Protesters carried signs with such abortion-rights messages as "Choice = Freedom" and "Run Bush Run — The Feminists are Coming." Participants came from across the nation and from nearly 60 countries..."
Abuses to stop?
"[59.] The reprobated practice by which Priests, Deacons or the faithful here and there alter or vary at will the texts of the Sacred Liturgy that they are charged to pronounce, must cease. For in doing thus, they render the celebration of the Sacred Liturgy unstable, and not infrequently distort the authentic meaning of the Liturgy.
[60.] In the celebration of Mass, the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist are intimately connected to one another, and form one single act of worship. For this reason it is not licit to separate one of these parts from the other and celebrate them at different times or places. Nor is it licit to carry out the individual parts of Holy Mass at different times of the same day.
[61.] In selecting the biblical readings for proclamation in the celebration of Mass, the norms found in the liturgical books are to be followed, so that indeed "a richer table of the Word of God will be prepared for the faithful, and the biblical treasures opened up for them".
[62.] It is also illicit to omit or to substitute the prescribed biblical readings on one's own initiative, and especially "to substitute other, non-biblical texts for the readings and responsorial Psalm, which contain the word of God".
[63.] "Within the celebration of the Sacred Liturgy, the reading of the Gospel, which is "the high point of the Liturgy of the Word", is reserved by the Church's tradition to an ordained minister.140 Thus it is not permitted for a layperson, even a religious, to proclaim the Gospel reading in the celebration of Holy Mass, nor in other cases in which the norms do not explicitly permit it.
[64.] The homily, which is given in the course of the celebration of Holy Mass and is a part of the Liturgy itself,"should ordinarily be given by the Priest celebrant himself. He may entrust it to a concelebrating Priest or occasionally, according to circumstances, to a Deacon, but never to a layperson. In particular cases and for a just cause, the homily may even be given by a Bishop or a Priest who is present at the celebration but cannot concelebrate".
Will it effect places like St Joan of Arc's in the Minneapolis Archdiocese?
For a starter, check out their "Sunday Readings" pages - then check out some other liturgical matters, such as who are the "Sunday speakers."
Back to the latest Instruction:
"6. Complaints Regarding Abuses in Liturgical Matters
[183.] In an altogether particular manner, let everyone do all that is in their power to ensure that the Most Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist will be protected from any and every irreverence or distortion and that all abuses be thoroughly corrected. This is a most serious duty incumbent upon each and every one, and all are bound to carry it out without any favoritism.
[184.] Any Catholic, whether Priest or Deacon or lay member of Christ's faithful, has the right to lodge a complaint regarding a liturgical abuse to the diocesan Bishop or the competent Ordinary equivalent to him in law, or to the Apostolic See on account of the primacy of the Roman Pontiff. It is fitting, however, insofar as possible, that the report or complaint be submitted first to the diocesan Bishop. This is naturally to be done in truth and charity."
Today in Christian history
April 25, 1214: Louis IX, king of France and saint, is born. Leader of the Seventh and Eighth Crusades (he died on the latter), he was known for his humility: he wore hair shirts and visited hospitals—where he emptied the bedpans.
April 25, 1530: The Augsburg Confession was read publicly at the Diet of Worms. Written principally by Philip Melanchthon, the document comprised the first official summary of the Lutheran faith
April 25, 1599: Oliver Cromwell, the Puritan lord protector of England, is born near Cambridge.
April 25, 1792: John Keble, English clergyman and poet, was born. Credited with having founded the Oxford Movement in 1833, Keble also authored the hymn, “Sun of My Soul, Thou Savior Dear.”